Who used the term "Transesophageal echocardiography" for the first time in the world ?

Who composed the term "Transesophageal echocardiography" for the first time in the world ?

When Frazin reported M mode transsophageal echocardiography in 1976, the title of his paper was esophageal echocardiography. (ref.1)

I investigated the origin of the term "transesophageal echocardiography" or "TEE" for the long time.

The origin of the term "transesophageal echocardiography" was probably the paper "A new transesophageal two-dimensional echocardiographic sytem and its clinical applications" by Hisanaga.(ref.2)

The term "transesophageal echocardiography" was used in Hisanaga's other papers. (ref.3, ref.4, ref.5) 

The reason why the term "transesophageal echocardiography" is not Frazin's esophageal echocardiography but Hisanaga's transesophageal echocardiography is that the abbreviation of esophageal echocardiography is similar to ECG or EEG, so probably many doctors adopted the term "transesophageal echocardiography".

Please see "History of Echocardiography".     Click here

Please see "History of Endoscopic Ultrasonography".     Click here

When you have a time, please see "History of transesophageal echocardiography"  Click here 

E-mail address of Hisanaga



1.  Frazin L,Talano JV, Stephanides L, Loeb HS, Kopel L, Gunnar RM     Esophageal echocardiography.  Circulation 54 :102-108,1976        Notes : M-mode

2.  Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A, Nagata K, Yoshida S    A new transesophageal two-dimensional  echocardiographic system using a flexible tube and its clinical applications.  Proceedings of Japan Society of Ultraonics in Medicine 32:43-44, 1977

3.  Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A.   A new real-time sector scanning system of ultra-wide angle and real-time recording of entire adult cardiac images ---Transesophagus and Trans-chest- wall methods ---.   In:White DN, Lyons AE, eds.    Ultrasound in Medicine Vol.4, New York, Plenum Press, pp391-402, 1978 

4.   Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A.   A transesophageal real-time sector scanner with an oil  filled cell.   Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Meeting of American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. p.47, November, 1978, San Diego

5.  Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A.   A new transesophageal high speed sector scanner.   Proceedings of 3rd European Congress on Ultrasonics in Medicine  (3rd Congress of EFSUMB) pp201-205, October 1-5, Bologna 1978