Hisanaga developed many kinds of transgastric ultrasound sector or rotating scanner (ref.2~ref.6) with and without balloon.

When Hisanaga developed transgastric ultrasound sector scanner with optic gastrofibrscope, Hisanaga performed transgastric examination without balloon (bag) many times.

In comparison with TEE it is very difficult for us to get images of high quality without balloon.

When balloon(bag) was attached, image quality was considerably increased.

However even if using balloon, image quality was sometimes bad.

So Hisanaga made a firm decision.  Before examinations patients drank water over 300ml and performed transgastric examinations.  The water that had been boiled and cooled down was used.

Thereby in all patients transgastric high quality images were obtained and apart from slightly gagging no serious complications were encountered.  When Hisanaga presented a paper of those examinations on academic conference(ref.7), a famous professor(associate professor) criticized severely that this Hisanaga's method was very dangerous.

Several years later, this famous professor himself presented a paper of filling stomach with water method in a famous journal.


When you have a time, please see "History of endoscopic ultrasonography ".     Click here

Please see "History of Echocardiography".     Click here

Please see "History of Transesophageal Echocardiography".     Click here


E-mail address of Hisanaga          busuchan1122@yahoo.co.jp



1.  Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A, Nagata K, Yoshida S      A new transesophageal real time

two-dimensional echocardiographic system using a flexible tube and its clinical applications.  Proceedings of Japan Society of Ultraonic in Medicine 32:43-44, 1977

2.   Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A.   A new trans-digestive-tract scanner with a gastrofiberscope.   Proceedings of the 23rd    Annual Meeting of American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. p.108, November, San Diego, 1978

 3.  Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A.   A new real-time sector scanning system of ultra-wide angle and real-time recording  of entire adult cardiac images --Transesophagus and Trans-chest-wall methods --.    In:White DN, Lyons AE, eds.    Ultrasound in Medicine.  Vol.4. New York; Plenum  Press, pp391-402, 1978

4.  Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A, Nagata K, Ichie Y.   A trans- stomach wall sector scanner with a gastrofiberscope    Abstract of 2nd WFUMB, p383, July 22-27,  Miyazaki, 1979  

5.  Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A, Nagata K, Ichie Y.   A trans- stomach wall high speed rotating scanner and initial clinical results.    Proceedings of the Japan Society of Ultrasoics in Medicine 35:115-116, 1979  

From ref.5    Horizontal scan through the left kidney in a normal adult by using the trans-stomach-wall rotating scanner.  When 

near gain is standard, pancreas is seen as echo free space near the stomach.        

6.  Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A, Nagata K, Ichie Y.   High speed rotating scanner for transgastoric sonography.    Am.J.Roentgenol. 135:625-629, 1980

From ref.6    Upper Fig.  Intragastric high speed rotating scanner.   Small transducer in stomach is rotated by flexible rotating shaft and motor at 15-50 cycles/sec.Lower Fig.   Transducer and commutator in oil bag.   

From ref.6    Horizontal scans through left kidney in normal adult with intragastric high speed rotating scanner.    Left : Left kidney and abdominal aorta are seen clearly.  If amplitude of near field is relatively low, pancreas is seen as anechoic space near stomach wall.   Right : With increasing amplitude of near field, pancreas assumes cloudlike shape. 

7.  Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A, Kambe T.   Transgastric sonography and examination technique.    Proceedings of the Japan Society of Ultrasonics in Medicine  37:413-414, 1980   

From ref.7    Horizontal scan through the stomach posterior wall in a normal adult by using the transgastric sector scanner with gastrofiberscope when the stomach was filled with water.           Left kidney is seen clearly.    SW = stomach wall, LK = left kidney, V = vertebra, R = right, L = left.