History of Doppler Echocardiography


                   Timeline of the progress in Doppler echocaardiography





Another timeline and references


1956    Satomura S et al.    Continuous wave Doppler echo. (ref.1)

1956    Satomura S et al.    Continuous wave Doppler echo. (ref.2)

1956    Yoshida T et al.    Continuous wave Doppler echo. (ref.3)

1956    Hikita G et al.    Continuous wave Doppler echo. (ref.4)

1956    Satomura S    Inspection of cardiac function by Doppler. (ref.5)

1959    Satomura S    Flow pattern in peripheral arteries by Doppler. (ref.6)

1961    Franklin DL et al.    Continuous flow Doppler. (ref.7)

1961    Kaneko Z et al.    Studies on peripheral circulation by Doppler. (ref. 8)

1966    Rushmer RF, Baker DW et al.    Continuous flow Doppler. (ref.9)

1967    Baker DW et al.   Pulssed Doppler. (ref.10, ref.14)

1967    Strandness DE et al.    Continuous flow Doppler. (ref.11)

1969   Light LH    Observing blood-flow in human aorta by Doppler. (ref. 12A)

1969    Wells PNT     Range-gated ultrasonic Doppler system. (ref.12)

1969    Peronneau EPA et al.    Doppler flow meter. (ref.13)

1971    Side CD and Gosling RG    Esophageal continuous wave Doppler. (ref.15)

1972    Kalmanson D et al.    Doppler flow meter, (ref.16)

1974    Olson RM and Cooke JP    Transesophageal continuous wave Doppler. (ref.17)

1974    Duck FA et al.    Transesophageal continuous wave Doppler. (ref.18)

1975    Daigle RE et al.   Esophageal Doppler.  Examination of Dog. Not human, (ref.19)

1976    Nealeigh RC et al.   A venous pulse Doppler catheter tip flowmeter. (ref.19A) 

1978    Hisanaga K et al.    Transesophageal pulsed Doppler with M-mode. This is the first human

           transesophageal pulsed Doppler in history. (ref.20, ref.23, ref.25)

1978    Brandestini M et al.    M-mode and multigated Doppler flow meter. (ref.21, ref.22)

1979    Histand MB et al.    Transesophageal pulsed Doppler. (ref.23A)

1979    Holen J and Simonsen S    Determination of pressure gradient with Doppler. (ref.24)

1981    Schluter M et al.    Mitral regurgitation detected by transesophageal pulsed Doppler with M-mode

           by A.T.L. system. (ref.26, ref.28)

1982    Hisanaga K et al.    Transesophageal pulsed Doppler without mirror. (ref.27)

1982    Bommer WJ and Miller L    Real-time two-dimensional color flow Doppler. (ref.29)

1982    Namekawa K, Kasai C et al.    Imaging of blood flow using autocorrelation, Color flow Doppler.

           (ref.30, ref.31)

1985    Kasai C et al.    Imaging of blood flow using autocorrelation. Color flow Doppler. (ref.32)

1986    Goldman ME et al.    Intraoperative trransesophageal real-time Doppler flow imaging. Color flow Doppler.                (ref.33)

1986    Takamoto S et al.    Transesophageal real-time Doppler flow imaging. Color flow Doppler. (ref.34)

1987    de Bruijn NP et al.    Intraoperative transesophageal color flow mapping. (ref.35)

1989    Isaaz K et al.     Ventricular wall motion measurement by Doppler. (ref.36)

1991    Bohs LN et al.     Speckle tracking echocardiography. (ref.36A)

1992    McDiken WN et al.     Color Doppler myocardial imaging. (ref.37)

1993    Becher H, von Bibra H et al.     Contrast enhanced color Doppler. (ref.38)

1994    Sutherland GR et al.    Color Doppler myocardial imaging. (ref.39)

1995    Paika P et al.     Tissue Doppler imaging. (ref.40)

1995    Miyatake K et al.   Tissue Doppler imaging. (ref.41)

2001   Becker D et al.   Color Doppler endoscopic ultrasound. (ref. 42)

2002   Trambaiolo P et al.     Transesophageal tissue Doppler echo. (ref.43)

2003   Cheng MM et al.     Transesophageal tissue Doppler echo. (ref.44)

2006   Ohtsuki S, Tanaka M     Blood flow velocity distribution by Doppler. (ref.45)

2010   Garcia D et al.   Vector flow mapping.  VFM. (ref.46)









1.     Satomura S, Matsubara S, Yoshioka M        A new method of mechanical vibration measurement and its application.    Mem Inst Sci Ind Res Osaka Univ 13: 125-133, 1956 

Shigeo Satomura, PhD.    From Short history of the development of ultrasound by Joseph Woo.

2.     Satomura S.    Study on examining the heart with the ultrasonic Doppler method : II. Equipment. Jpn Circ J 20: 227-228, 1956   Continuous wave Doppler.

3.     Yoshida T, Mori M, Nimura Y, Okumura M, Hikita G, Nakanishi K, Satomura S.   Study on

examining the heart with the ultrasonic Doppler method : lll. Kinds of Doppler beats.   Jpn Circ J 20: 228,1956      Continuous wave Doppler.

4.      Hikita G, Yoshida M, Satomura S et al.    Study on examining the heart with the ultrasonic Doppler method : V. Doppler beats of the valve.   Jpn Circ J 20: 625, 1956 

5.     Satomura S     Ultrasonic Doppler method for the inspection of cardiac function.   

J Acoust Soc Am 1957, 29:1181-1185       Continuous wave Doppler echo.

6.     Satomura S    Study of the flow patterns in peripheral arteries by ultrasonics. 

J acoust Soc Jpn 15:151-158, 1959    Continuous wave Doppler.

7.     Franklin DL, Schlegel W, Rushmer RF.   Blood flow measured by Doppler frequency shift of back-scattered ultrasound.  Science 134:564-565, 1961    Continuous wave Doppler.

8.     Kaneko Z, Kotani H, Komuta K, Satomura S.    Studies on peripheral Circulation by “Blood-Rheograph”: Jpn Circ J 25:203-213, 1961     Continuous wave Doppler.

9.     Rushmer RF, Baker DW, Stegul HI.   Transcutaneous Doppler flow detection as a

nondestructive technique.  J Appl Physiol 21:554-556, 1966 

10.    Baker DW, Watkins D     A phase coherent pulse Doppler system for cardiovascular measurement.   In Proc. 20th Ann. Conf. on Eng. in Med. and BIol., Boston, Nov,1967   Pulsed Doppler

Donald Baker.     From "History of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology".

11.   Strandness DE, Schulty RD, Summer DS et al.      Ultrasonic flow detection. A useful technique in the evaluation of peripheral vascular disease.  Am J Surg 113:311-320, 1967

Continuous wave Doppler.

12.   Wells PNT     A range-gated ultrasonic Doppler system.  Med Biol Eng 7: 641-652, 1969        Pulsed Doppler 


12A.   Light LH    Non-injurious Ultrasonic Technique for observing Flow in the Human Aorta.   Nature 224: 1119-1121, 1969

13.   Peronneau EPA, Deloche A et al.    Debitmetrie ultrasonore: developpements et application experimentales.  Eur Surg Res 1:149, 1969 

14.   Baker DW.    Pulsed ultrasonic Doppler blood-flow sensing.   IEEE Transactions on Sonics and Ultrasonics 1970 Vol.17 Issue:3  pp170-184           See references 10.  Pulsed Doppler was reported by DW Baker 2 years before report of Wells.

15.   Side CD, Gosling RG     Nonsurgical assessment of cardiac function.    Nature 1971, 232:335-336         Esophageal continuous wave Doppler echo

16.   Kalmanson D, Vevrat C, Derai C et al.   Non-invasive technique for diagnosing atrial septal defect and assessing shunt volume using directional Doppler ultrasound. Correlations with phasic flow velocity patterns of the shunt.  Br Heart J 34(10):981-991,1972

17.   Olson RM, Cooke JP     A nondestructive ultrasonic technique to measure diameter and blood flow in arteries.   IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, March 21:168-171,1974    Transesophageal continuous wave Doppler echo

18.   Duck FA, Hodson CJ, Tomlin PJ     An esophageal Doppler probe for aortic flow velocity monitoring.     Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology 1:233-241,1974     Transesophageal continuous wave Doppler echo 

19.   Daigle RE, Miller CW, Histand MB, Macleod FD, Hokanson D     Nontraumatic aortic blood flow sensing by use of an ultrasonic esophageal probe.   J Appl Physiol 38:1153-1160, 1975       Examination of dog.  Transesophageal Doppler.  Not human but Dog.

19A.   Nealeigh RC, Miller CW.     A venous pulse Doppler catheter tip: flowmeter for measuring arterial blood velocity, flow, and diameter in deep arteries.   ISA trans. 15(1):84-87, 1976

20.    Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A       A transesophageal pulsed Doppler echocaardiographic system and initial clinical results.  Proceedings of the Japan Society of Ultrasonics in Medicine 34: 9-10, 1978         Transesophageal pulsed Doppler with M-mode.  This is the first human transesophageal pulsed Doppler in history.  Improvement of A.T.L.system. 

From ref.20   Transesophageal pulsed Doppler system.

From ref.20    Flow pattern in RVOT.  Normal adult.

Kohzoh Hisanaga, MD.(Hisanaga K.)    From "People who developed medical ultrasound".  p35, Itoh K, Ed., Supplement of Proceedings of 60th Meeting of JSUM 1992.   Kohzoh Hisanaga is not only an electronic engineer but also a medical doctor.

Dr. Hisanaga received the Honor Award of the Japanese college of cardiology in 1991 because Dr. Hisanaga developed "Transesophageal two dimensional echocardiography" for the first time in history.

21.   Brandestini M.    Topoflow - A digital full range Doppler velocity meter.   IEEE Transactions on Sonics and Ultrasonics, Vol.25(5) 287-292, 1978

M-mode and multigated Doppler flowmeter  

22.    Stevenson JG, Brandestini MA, Weiler T, Howard EA, Eyer M.    Digital multigate Doppler with color echo and Doppler display : Diagnosis of atrial and ventricular septal defects.  Circulation 60(Suppl ll): 205, 1979     M-mode and multigated Doppler flow meter.

23.   Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A, Ichie Y, Nishimura K, Hibi N, Fukui Y, Kambe T  

Transesophageal pulsed Doppler echocardiography.  Lancet 1:53-54, January 1979              

Transesophageal pulsed Doppler with M-mode.    Improvement of A.T.L. system.

23A.    Histand MB, Wells MK, Reeves JT, Sodal IE, Adamson HP, Willson JT     Ultrasonic pulsed Doppler transesophageal measurement of aortic hemodynamics in humans.  Ultrasonics 17(5):215-218, Sep 1979

24.   Holen J, Simonsen S.    Determination of pressure gradient in mitral stenosis with Doppler echocardiography.    Br Heart J 41:529-535, 1979

25.   Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A.    Diagnosis of heart diseases by transesophageal 2D echocardiography and transesophageal pulsed Doppler echocardiography.   Eizou Jouhou Medical (in Japanese) 13:1189-1192, 1981 

26.   Schulter M, Langenstein BA, Hanrath P, Kremer P, Bleifeld W     Mitral regurgitation detected by transesophageal pulsed Doppler echocardiography.   (abstr.)  Eur Heart J, 2(suppl A) 114, 1981   Transesophageal pulsed Doppler by improvement of A.T.L.system.   

27.    Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A.    Transesophageal pulsed Doppler echocardiography (third report): Development of system without mirror and initial clinical results.  Proceedings of the Japan Society of Ultrasonics in Medicine 40:171-172,1982

28.   Schulter M, Langenstein BA, Hanrath P    Transesophageal pulsed Doppler echocardiography in mitral and aortic regurgitation, In:Hanrath P, Bleifeld W and Souquet J eds.  Cardiovascular Diagnosis by ultrasound. pp132-140, 1982     Transesophageal Pulsed Doppler with M-mode by improvement of A.T.L.system. 

29.   Bommer WJ, Miller L.    Real-time two-dimensional color flow Doppler -- Enhanced Doppler flow imaging in the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease.    Am J Cardiology (Abstract) 1982, 49:944      Real-time 2D color flow Doppler.

30.   Namekawa K, Kasai C et al.    Imaging of Blood flow using autocorrelation.   Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology 8(Suppl l):138, 1982    Real-time 2D color flow Doppler

31.    Namekawa K, Kasai C, Tsukamoto M, Koyano A.     Real-time blood flow imaging system utilizing auto-correlation techniques.  In Lerski RA, Morley P (eds.), Ultrasound, New York, Pergamon Press, pp203-208, 1982     Real-time 2D color flow Doppler.

Kouroku Namekawa.     From "Meet The History"  Japan Heart Foundation.

Mr. Namekawa received the Honor Award of the Japanese college of cardiology in 1990

32.    Kasai C, Namekawa K, Koyano A, Omoto R.      Real-time two-dimensional blood flow imaging using an autocorrelation technique.   IEEE Transactions on Sonics and Ultrasonics,  May: 32(3): 458-464, 1985      Real-time 2D color flow Doppler.

Chihiro Kasai.     From Kobayashi Riken News No.67-6

33.   Goldman ME, Thys D, Ritter S, Hittel Z, Kaplan J.    Transesophageal real-time Doppler flow imaging: a new method for intraoperative cardiac evaluation (abstract) J Am Coll Cardiol 7:1, 1986     Transesophageal 2D color flow Doppler

34.   Takamoto S, Kyo S, Matsumura M, Hojo H, Yokote Y, Omoto R.     Total visualization of thoracic dissecting aortic aneurysm by transesophageal Doppler color flow mapping (abstract). Circulation 74(Suppl II):II–132, 1986        Transesophageal 2D color flow Doppler 

35.  de Bruijn NP, Clements FM, Kisslo JA.    Intraoperative transesophageal color flow mapping: initial experience.  Anesth Analg 66:386–390, 1987     Transesophageal 2D color flow Doppler

36.   Isaaz K, Thompson A, Ethevenot G, Cloez JL, Brembilla B, Pernot C.    Doppler echocardiographic measurement of low velocity motion of the left ventricular posterior wall.  Am J Cardiol  64: 66, 1989       Ventricular wall motion measurement by Doppler.

36A.     Bohs LN and Trahey GE    A novel method for angle independent ultrasonic imaging of blood flow and tissue motion.  IEEE Trans Biomed Eng  38(3): 280-286, 1991    Speckle tracking Echocardiography.

37.    McDiken WN, Sutherland GT et al.   Color Doppler velocity imaging of the myocardium. Ultrasound Med Biol 18: 651-654, 1992    Color Doppler myocardial imaging.

38. Becher H, von Bibra H, Walther M, Glanzer K, Vetter H.     Contrast enhanced color Doppler-Basics and potential clinical value.  In:Nanda NC, Schlief R eds. Advances in echo imaging using contrast enhancement.  Springer Link pp253-271, 1993

39.    Sutherland GR, Stewart MJ et al.    Color Doppler myocardial imaging: a new technique for the assessment of myocardial function.  J Am Soc Echocardiogr 7(5):441-458,1994

40.   Paika P, Lange A et al.     Doppler tissue imaging: Myocardial wall motion velocities in normal subjects.  J Am Soc Echocardiogr  8: 659-668, 1995

41.   Miyatake K, Yamaguchi M et al.     New method for evaluation left ventricular wall motion by color-coded tissue Doppler imaging: In vitro and in vivo studies.   J Am Coll Cardiol 25(3): 717-724, 1995

42.   Becker D, Strobel D, Bernatik T, Hahn EG    Echo-enhanced color- and power-Doppler EUS for the discrimination between focal pancreatitis and pancreatic Carcinoma.   Gastrointest Endosc 53(7):784-789,2001

43.   Trambaiolo P, Salustri A et al.   Assessment of left atrial appendage wall velocities by transesophageal tissue Doppler echocardiography: a clinical study in patients with sinus rhythm.  J Am Soc Echocardiogr 15(5):425-432, 2002

44.   Cheng MM, Li J, White PA et al.   Doppler tissue echocardiography: can transesophageal echocardiography be used to acquire functional data?   J Am Soc Echocardiogr 16(7): 732-737, 2003

45.   Ohtsuki S, Tanaka M    The flow velocity distribution from Doppler information on a plane in three-dimensional flow.   Journal of Visualization 9(1):69-82, 2006


46.   Garcia D et al.   Two-dimensional intraventricular flow mapping by digital processing conventional color-Doppler echocardiography images.  IEEE Trans Med imaging 29:1701-1713, 2010        VFM. Vector Flow Mapping.