History of Doppler Echocardiography


                   Timeline of the progress in Doppler echocaardiography



Another timeline and references


1956   Satomura S et al.    Continuous wave Doppler echo. (ref.1)

1956   Satomura S et al.    Continuous wave Doppler echo. (ref.2)

1956   Yoshida T et al.    Continuous wave Doppler echo. (ref.3)

1956   Hikita G et al.    Continuous wave Doppler echo. (ref.4)

1956   Satomura S.    Inspection of cardiac function by Doppler. (ref.5)

1959   Satomura S.    Flow pattern in peripheral arteries by Doppler. (ref.6)

1961   Franklin DL et al.    Continuous flow Doppler. (ref.7)

1961   Kaneko Z et al.    Studies on peripheral circulation by Doppler. (ref. 8)

1966   Rushmer RF, Baker DW et al.    Continuous flow Doppler. (ref.9)

1967   Baker DW et al.   Pulsed Doppler. (ref.10, ref.14)

1967   Strandness DE et al.    Continuous flow Doppler. (ref.11)

1969   Light LH.    Observing blood-flow in human aorta by Doppler. (ref. 12A)

1969   Wells PNT.     Range-gated ultrasonic Doppler system. (ref.12)

1969   Peronneau EPA et al.    Doppler flow meter. (ref.13)

1971   Side CD and Gosling RG    Esophageal continuous wave Doppler. (ref.15)

1972   Kalmanson D et al.    Doppler flow meter, (ref.16)

1972   Olson RM and Shelton DK.    Transesophageal continuous wave Doppler. (ref.17)

1973   Johnson SL et al.   Pulsed Doppler echo. (ref.17A)

1974   Duck FA et al.    Transesophageal continuous wave Doppler. (ref.18)

1974   Gosling RG et al.   Arterial assessment by Doppler. (ref.18A)

1975   Tomlin PJ et al.   Esophageal continuous wave Doppler. (ref.18B)

1975   Daigle RE et al.   Esophageal Doppler.  Examination of Dog. Not human, (ref.19)

1976   Nealeigh RC et al.   A venous pulse Doppler catheter tip flowmeter. (ref.19A)

1978   Hisanaga K et al.    Transesophageal pulsed Doppler with M-mode. This is the first human transesophageal 

          pulsed Doppler in history. (ref.20, ref.23, ref.25)

1978   Brandestini M et al.    M-mode and multigated Doppler flow meter. (ref.21, ref.22)

1979   Histand MB et al.    Transesophageal pulsed Doppler of AS. (ref.23A)

1979   Holen J and Simonsen S.    Determination of pressure gradient of MS with Doppler. (ref.24)

1980   Hatle L et al.    Assessment of AS by Doppler. (ref.24A)

1981   Schluter M et al.    Mitral regurgitation detected by transesophageal pulsed Doppler with M-mode by A.T.L. 

          system. (ref.26, ref.28)

1982   Hisanaga K et al.    Transesophageal pulsed Doppler without mirror. (ref.27)

1982   Bommer WJ and Miller L.    Real-time two-dimensional color flow Doppler. (ref.29)

1982   Namekawa K, Kasai C et al.    Imaging of blood flow using autocorrelation, Color flow Doppler. (ref.30,


1985   Kasai C et al.    Imaging of blood flow using autocorrelation. Color flow Doppler. (ref.32)

1986   Goldman ME et al.    Intraoperative transesophageal real-time Doppler flow imaging.  Color flow Doppler. 


1986   Takamoto S et al.    Transesophageal real-time Doppler flow imaging. Color flow Doppler. (ref.34)

1987   de Bruijn NP et al.    Intraoperative transesophageal color flow mapping. (ref.35)

1989   Isaaz K et al.     Ventricular wall motion measurement by Doppler. (ref.36)

1991   Bohs LN et al.     Speckle tracking echocardiography. (ref.36A)

1992   McDicken WN et al.     Color Doppler myocardial imaging. (ref.37)

1993   Becher H, von Bibra H et al.     Contrast enhanced color Doppler. (ref.38)

1994   Sutherland GR et al.    Color Doppler myocardial imaging. (ref.39)

1995   Tei C et al.    Tei index. (ref.39A, ref.39B)

1995   Paika P et al.     Tissue Doppler imaging. (ref.40)

1995   Miyatake K et al.   Tissue Doppler imaging. (ref.41)

2001   Becker D et al.   Color Doppler endoscopic ultrasound. (ref. 42)

2002   Trambaiolo P et al.     Transesophageal tissue Doppler echo. (ref.43)

2003   Cheng MM et al.     Transesophageal tissue Doppler echo. (ref.44)

2006   Ohtsuki S, Tanaka M.     Blood flow velocity distribution by Doppler. (ref.45)

2010   Garcia D et al.   Vector flow mapping.  VFM. (ref.46)

2015   Voigt JU et al.   Speckle tracking. (ref.47)

2022   Fraser AG et al.   The most detailed history of echocardiography. (ref.48)





1.      Satomura S, Matsubara S, Yoshioka M.     A new method of mechanical vibration

measurement and its application.  Mem. Inst. Sci. Ind. Res. Osaka Univ. 13:125-133, 1956  

Continuous wave Doppler echo

Shigeo Satomura, PhD.    From Short history of the development of ultrasound by Joseph Woo.


Shigeo Satomura, PhD.    From Short history of the development of ultrasound by Joseph Woo.


2.      Satomura S.    Study on examining the heart with the ultrasonic Doppler method:

II. Equipment. Jpn Circ J 20: 227-228, 1956    Continuous wave Doppler.

3.     Yoshida T, Mori M, Nimura Y, Okumura M, Hikita G, Nakanishi K, Satomura S.   Study

on examining the heart with the ultrasonic Doppler method: Ⅲ. Kinds of Doppler beats.  Jpn Circ J 20: 228, 1956     Continuous wave Doppler.

4.      Hikita G, Yoshida M, Satomura S et al.   Study on examining the heart with the

ultrasonic Doppler method : Ⅴ. Doppler beats of the valve.   Jpn Circ J 20: 625, 1956

5.     Satomura S.    Ultrasonic Doppler method for the inspection of cardiac function.              

J Acoust Soc Am 29:1181-1185, 1957     Continuous wave Doppler echo.

6.     Satomura S.     Study of the flow patterns in peripheral arteries by ultrasonics. 

J acoust Soc Jpn 15:151-158, 1959     Continuous wave Doppler.

7.     Franklin DL, Schlegel W, Rushmer RF.   Blood flow measured by Doppler frequency

Shift of back-scattered ultrasound.  Science 134:564-565, 1961    Continuous wave Doppler.

8.     Kaneko Z, Kotani H, Komuta K, Satomura S.     Studies on peripheral Circulation by

Blood-Rheograph”:  Jpn Circ J 25:203-213, 1961      Continuous wave Doppler.

9.     Rushmer RF, Baker DW, Stegul HI.    Transcutaneous Doppler flow detection as a

nondestructive technique.  J Appl Physiol 21:554-556, 1966 

10.    Baker DW, Watkins D.     A phase coherent pulse Doppler system for cardiovascular

measurement.   In Proc. 20th Ann. Conf. on Eng. in Med. and BIol., Boston, Nov,1967

Pulsed Doppler.

Donald Baker.     From "History of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology".


11.      Strandness DE, Schulty RD, Summer DS et al.      Ultrasonic flow detection. A useful

technique in the evaluation of peripheral vascular disease.  Am J Surg 113:311-320, 1967

Continuous wave Doppler.

12.      Wells PNT.    A range-gated ultrasonic Doppler system.  Med Biol Eng 7: 641-652,

1969        Pulsed Doppler

12A.    Light LH    Non-injurious Ultrasonic Technique for observing Flow in the Human Aorta.   Nature 224: 1119-1121, 1969

13.      Peronneau EPA, Deloche A et al.    Debitmetre ultrasonore: developpmements et applications experimentale.  Eur Surg Res 1:149, 1969

14.      Baker DW.    Pulsed ultrasonic Doppler blood-flow sensing.   IEEE Transactions on Sonics and Ultrasonics 17 (3): 170-184, 1970     See reference 10.  Pulsed Doppler was reported by DW Baker 2 years before report of Wells.

15.      Side CD, Gosling RG.    Nonsurgical assessment of cardiac function.   Nature 232:335-336, 1971         Esophageal continuous wave Doppler echo

16.      Kalmanson D, Veyrat C, Derai C et al.    Non-invasive technique for diagnosing atrial septal defect and assessing shunt volume using directional Doppler ultrasound. Correlations with phasic flow velocity patterns of the shunt.  Br Heart J 34(10):981-991, 1972

17.      Olson RM, Shelton DK.     A nondestructive technique to measure wall displacement in the thoracic aorta.   J Appl Physiol 32(1):147-151, 1972.    Transesophageal continuous wave Doppler.

17A.    Johnson SL, Baker DW, Lute RA, Dodge HT.   Doppler echocardiography: The localization of cardiac murmurs.  Circulation 48(4):810-822, 1973

18.      Duck FA, Hodson CJ, Tomlin PJ.     An esophageal Doppler probe for aortic flow velocity monitoring.     Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology 1:233-241, 1974     Transesophageal continuous wave Doppler echo

18A.    Gosling RG, King DH.    Arterial assessment by Doppler shift ultrasound.  Proc R Soc Med 67(6Pt 1):447-449, 1974

18B.    Tomlin PJ, Duck FA.    Transesophageal aortic velography in man.   Can Anaesth Soc J 22(5):561-571, 1975    Transesophageal continuous wave Doppler.

19.     Daigle RE, Miller CW, Histand MB, Macleod FD, Hokanson D.     Nontraumatic aortic blood flow sensing by use of an ultrasonic esophageal probe.   J Appl Physiol 38:1153-1160, 1975        Examination of dog.  Transesophageal Doppler.  Not human but Dog.

19A.    Nealeigh RC, Miller CW.     A venous pulse Doppler catheter tip flowmeter for measuring arterial blood velocity, flow, and diameter in deep arteries.   ISA trans. 15(1):84-87, 1976


20.     Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A.     A transesophageal pulsed Doppler echocardiographic system and initial clinical results.   Proceedings of the Japan Society of Ultrasonics in Medicine 34:9-10, 1978       Transesophageal pulsed Doppler with M-mode.  This is the first human transesophageal pulsed Doppler in history.  Improvement of A.T.L. system.   

From ref.20   Transesophageal pulsed Doppler system.

From ref.20    Flow pattern in RVOT.  Normal adult.


Kohzoh Hisanaga, MD. (Hisanaga K.)    From "People who developed medical ultrasound".  p35, Itoh K, Ed., Supplement of Proceedings of 60th Meeting of JSUM 1992.   Kohzoh Hisanaga is not only an electronic engineer but also a medical doctor.  

Dr. Hisanaga received the Honor Award of the Japanese college of cardiology in 1991 because Dr. Hisanaga developed Transesophageal two-dimensional echocardiography for the first time in history. 


21.     Brandestini M.    Topoflow-A digital full range Doppler velocity meter.   IEEE Transactions on Sonics and Ultrasonics 25(5): 287-292, 1978  M-mode and multigated Doppler flowmeter.

22.     Stevenson JG, Brandestini MA, Weiler T, Howard EA, Eyer M.    Digital multigated Doppler with color echo and Doppler display: diagnosis of atrial and ventricular septal defects.  Circulation 60(Suppl ll): 205, 1979     M-mode and multigated Doppler flow meter.

23.     Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A, Ichie Y, Nishimura K, Hibi N, Fukui Y, Kambe T.   

Transesophageal pulsed Doppler echocardiography.  Lancet 1:53-54, January 1979             

Transesophageal pulsed Doppler with M-mode.    Improvement of A.T.L. system.

23A.    Histand MB, Wells MK, Reeves JT, Sodal IE, Adamson HP, Willson JT.     Ultrasonic pulsed Doppler transesophageal measurement of aortic hemodynamics in humans.  Ultrasonics 17(5):215-218, Sep 1979

24.     Holen J, Simonsen S.     Determination of pressure gradient in mitral stenosis with Doppler echocardiography.    Br Heart J 41:529-535, 1979

24A.    Hatle L, Angelsen BA, Tromsdal A.     Non-invasive assessment of aortic stenosis by Doppler ultrasound.  Br Heart J 43(3):284-292, 1980

25.     Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A.     Diagnosis of heart diseases by transesophageal 2D echocardiography and transesophageal pulsed Doppler echocardiography.   Eizou Jouhou Medical (in Japanese) 13:1189-1192, 1981

26.    Schluter M, Langenstein BA, Hanrath P, Kremer P, Bleifeld W.     Mitral regurgitation detected by transesophageal pulsed Doppler echocardiography. (abstr)  Eur Heart J   2(suppl A):114, 1981     Transesophageal pulsed Doppler by improvement of A.T.L. system. 

27.     Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A.    Transesophageal pulsed Doppler echocardiography (third report):  development of system without mirror and initial clinical results.   Proceedings of the Japan Society of Ultrasonics in Medicine 40:171-172,1982 

28.    Schluter M, Langenstein BA, Hanrath P.    Transesophageal pulsed Doppler echocardiography in mitral and aortic regurgitation, In: Hanrath P, Bleifeld W and Souquet J (eds) Cardiovascular Diagnosis by ultrasound, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers pp132-140, 1982     Transesophageal Pulsed Doppler with M-mode by improvement of A.T.L. system.

29.     Bommer WJ, Miller L.    Real-time two-dimensional color flow Doppler-Enhanced Doppler flow imaging in the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. (Abstr) Am J Cardiology   49:944, 1982      Real-time 2D color flow Doppler.

30.     Namekawa K, Kasai C et al.    Imaging of Blood flow using autocorrelation.   Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology 8(Suppl l):138, 1982    Real-time 2D color flow Doppler.


31.     Namekawa K, Kasai C, Tsukamoto M, Koyano A.    Real time blood flow imaging system utilizing auto-correlation techniques.    In: Lerski RA, Morley P (eds.)  Ultrasound, New York, Pergamon Press pp203-208, 1982    Real-time 2D color flow Doppler.

Kouroku Namekawa.     From "Meet The History"  Japan Heart Foundation.

Mr. Namekawa received the Honor Award of the Japanese college of cardiology in 1990


32.    Kasai C, Namekawa K, Koyano A, Omoto R.     Real time two-dimensional blood flow imaging using an autocorrelation technique.   IEEE Transactions on Sonics and Ultrasonics, 32(3):458-464, May 1985       Real-time 2D color flow Doppler

Chihiro Kasai.   From Kobayashi Riken News No.67-6 


33.     Goldman ME, Thys D, Ritter S, Hittel Z, Kaplan J.    Transesophageal real-time Doppler flow imaging: a new method for intraoperative cardiac evaluation. (abstr) J Am Coll Cardiol 7:1, 1986     Transesophageal 2D color flow Doppler.

34.     Takamoto S, Kyo S, Matsumura M, Hojo H, Yokote Y, Omoto R.     Total visualization of thoracic dissecting aortic aneurysm by transesophageal Doppler color flow mapping (abstract). Circulation 74(Suppl II):II–132, 1986        Transesophageal 2D color flow Doppler

35.     de Bruijn NP, Clements FM, Kisslo JA.    Intraoperative transesophageal color flow mapping: initial experience.  Anesth Analg 66:386–390, 1987     Transesophageal 2D color flow Doppler

36.      Isaaz K, Thompson A, Ethevenot G, Cloez JL, Brembilla B, Pernot C.      Doppler echocardiographic measurement of low velocity motion of the left ventricular posterior wall.  Am J Cardiol 64: 66, 1989       Ventricular wall motion measurement by Doppler.

36A.    Bohs LN, Trahey GE et al.    A novel method for angle independent ultrasonic imaging of blood flow and tissue motion.  IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 38(3):280-286, 1991    Speckle tracking Echocardiography.

37.     McDicken WN, Sutherland GT et al.    Color Doppler velocity imaging of the myocardium.  Ultrasound Med Biol 18:651-654, 1992     Color Doppler myocardial imaging.

38.      Becher H, von Bibra H, Walther M, Glanzer K, Vetter H.     Contrast enhanced color Doppler-Basics and potential clinical value.  In: Nanda NC, Schlief R (eds.)  Advances in echo imaging using contrast enhancement. Springer Link pp253-271, 1993

39.     Sutherland GR, Stewart MJ et al.    Color Doppler myocardial imaging: a new technique for the assessment of myocardial function.  J Am Soc Echocardiogr 7(5):441-458, 1994

39A.    Tei C.   New non-invasive index for combined systolic and diastolic ventricular function.  J Cardiol 26(2):135-6, 1995

39B.    Tei C, Ling LH, Hodge DO, Bailey KR, Oh JK, Rodeheffer RJ, Tajik AJ, Seward JB.     New index of combined systolic and diastolic myocardial performance: a simple and reproducible measure of cardiac function--a study in normals and dilated cardiomyopathy.   J Cardiol 26(6):357-366, 1995

40.     Paika P, Lange A et al.     Doppler tissue imaging: myocardial wall motion velocities in normal subjects.  J Am Soc Echocardiogr 8: 659-668, 1995

41.     Miyatake K, Yamaguchi M et al.     New method for evaluation left ventricular wall motion by color-coded tissue Doppler imaging: in vitro and in vivo studies.   J Am Coll Cardiol 25(3):717-724, 1995

42.     Becker D, Strobel D, Bernatik T, Hahn EG    Echo-enhanced color- and power-Doppler EUS for the discrimination between focal pancreatitis and pancreatic Carcinoma.   Gastrointest Endosc 53(7):784-789,2001

43.     Trambaiolo P, Salustri A et al.   Assessment of left atrial appendage wall velocities by transesophageal tissue Doppler echocardiography: a clinical study in patients with sinus rhythm.  J Am Soc Echocardiogr 15(5):425-432, 2002

44.     Cheng MM, Li J, White PA et al.   Doppler tissue echocardiography: can transesophageal echocardiography be used to acquire functional data?   J Am Soc Echocardiogr 16(7): 732-737, 2003

45.     Ohtsuki S, Tanaka M    The flow velocity distribution from Doppler information on a plane in three-dimensional flow.   Journal of Visualization 9(1):69-82, 2006

46.    Garcia D et al.   Two-dimensional intraventricular flow mapping by digital processing conventional color-Doppler echocardiography images.  IEEE Trans Med imaging 29:1701-1713, 2010        VFM. Vector Flow Mapping.

47.     Voigt JU, Pedrizzetti G, Lysyansky P et al.     Definitions for a common standard for 2D speckle tracking echocardiography: consensus document of the EACVI/ASE/Industry Task Force to standardize deformation imaging.  Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 16(1):1-11, January 2015     Speckle tracking.

48.     Fraser AG, Monaghan MJ, van der Steen AFW, Sutherland GR.  A concise history of echocardiography: timeline, pioneers, and landmark publications.  European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging 00:1–14, 2022       The most detailed history of echocardiography.

From ref.48  Page 1. Graphical abstract.    Hisanaga’s research performance of transesophageal imaging is written in this abstract.