History of Transesophageal Echocardiography(TEE)

 

                              Timeline of the progress in transesophageal echocardiography

 

 

When you have time, please see "Timeline of the deveopment of EUS and TEE".  Click here 

Please see "History of echocardiography".    Click here

Please see "History of endoscopic ultrasonography".    Click here

 

 

 

Another timeline and references

 

1971   Side CD and Gosling RG     Esophageal continuous wave Doppler echo. (ref.1)       

         Not examination of the heart but only aorta.

1974   Olson RM et al.   Esophageal continuous wave Doppler and pulse echo system. (ref.2)

1974   Duck FA et al.   Esophageal continuous wave Doppler. (ref.3)

1975   Daigle RE et al.  Esophageal pulsed Doppler without M-mode.  Not a human but dog. (ref.4)       

1976   Frazin L et al.   Esophageal M-mode echo.(ref.5)  Not 2D echo but M-mode only. 

1977   Hisanaga K et al.   Transesophageal real-time two dimenstional sector scanner using a flexible 

          tube. (ref.6, ref.7, ref.9, ref.10, ref.11, ref.16, ref.19, ref.22)   This is the first transesophageal 2D

          scanner in history.  Examination of human.   The term "Transesophageal" was first used in this

          paper.  On the other hand Frazin used Term "esophageal".   

1978   Hisanaga K et al.   Transesophageal real-time two dimensional linear scanner using a flexible tube.

           (ref.12, ref.22)  Examination of human.                                             

1978    Hisanaga K et al.   Transesophageal pulsed Doppler echo with M-mode (ref.13, ref.20)                           Examination of human. This is the first human transesophageal pulsed Doppler in history.

1979    Hisanaga K et al.   Transesophageal high speed rotating scanner. (ref.16, ref.17, ref.18, ref.19,

            ref.21, ref.24, ref.27, ref.28, ref.39)   Examination of human.

1978   Hisanaga K et al.   EUS(transgastric sector scanner with a gastrofiberscope).

           (ref.13A, ref.13B)  Optic guidance.

1979   Hisanaga K et al.   Transgastric high speed rotating scanner using a flexible tube. (ref.13D, ref.13E)

1979   Hisanaga K et al.   Transesophageal high speed rotating scanner. (ref.16, ref.17, ref.18, ref.19,                ref.21, ref.24, ref.27, ref.28, ref.39)   Examination of human.

1979   Hisanaga et al.   Transesophageal high speed rotating scanner for oblique scan. (ref.14, ref.15,                ref.34)  Four chamber view including apex was observed easily by this system.

1979-1981   Hisanaga et al.   Heart images of many kinds of diseases by transesophageal 2D                              echocardiography.   Atrial septal defect (ref.23, ref.27, ref.34)    Lutembacher syndrome(ref.24),              left atrial myxoma(ref.28)and coronary artery (ref.39, ref.40)

 

1979   Histand MB et al.    Transesophageal pulsed Doppler. (ref.13C)

 

1980   Matsumoto et al.   Intraoperative monitoring by transesophageal M-mode echocardiography. 

          (ref.25)         Not 2D but M-mode

1981   Schluter M et al.   Transesophageal pulsed Doppler with M-mode. (ref.26, ref.32)

1982   Hisanaga K et al.   Transesophageal 2D echo of coronary artery (ref.39, ref.40)

1982   Schiller NB et al.   Transesophageal phased array sector scanner. (ref.29)   Monitor in cardiac

          surgery.    Intraoperative transesophageal 2D echo.

1982   Seward JB et al.   Transesophageal phased array sector scanner. (ref.30)   Not human but

          animal.   

1982   Hanrath P et al.   Transesophageal phased array sector scanner. (ref.31)  Biplane                       

           transesophageal     2D echo 

1982   Souquet J et al.   Transesophageal phased array sector scanner. (ref.33, ref.36) 

1982   Schulter M et al.   Transesophageal phased array sector scanner. (ref.35) 

1982   Cahalan MK et al.   Transesophageal phased array sector scanner.(ref.37)

           Intraoperative transesophageal 2D echo.

1982   Kremer P et al.   Transesophageal phased array sector scanner.(ref.38, ref.41)

          Intraoperative transesophageal 2D echo.

 

1983   Furuya H et al.     Detection of air embolism by M-mode TEE. (ref. 40A)

1983   Ezekowitz MD et al.   Transesophageal 2-D echo of left atrial myxoma. (ref.40B)

1984    Bertini A et al.   Transesophageal mechanical rotating scanner. (ref.40C)

1984  Curlign PE et al.    Transesophageal bidirectional phased array probe. (ref.42)

1984   Beaupre PN et al.     Intraoperative transesophageal 2D echo. (ref.41A)

1984   Topol EJ et al.    Intraoperative transesophageal 2D echocardiography. (ref.43)

          Intraoperative transesophageal 2D echo was reported in 1982 already. (ref.29, ref.37, ref.38))

1984   Cucchiara RF et al.    Detection of air embolism by transesophageal 2D echocardiography.

           (ref.45)  

1985   Smith JS et al.   Intraoperative detection of myocardial ischemia by TEE. (ref.41)

1985   Topol EJ et al.    Intraoperative microbubble detection by transesophageal 2D echocardiography.

          (ref.46)

1986   Achenberg W et al.    Detection of left atrial appendage thrombus by transesophageal 2D                       echocardiography. (ref.47)

1986   Goldman ME et al.   Intraoperative transesophageal Doppler flow imaging. Color Doppler. (ref.44)

1986   Takamoto A et al.   Transesophageal Doppler flow imaging.  Color Doppler. (ref.48)

1987   de Bruijn et al.    Intraoperative transesophageal Doppler flow mapping.  Color Doppler. (ref.49)

1988   Seward JB et al.   Transesophageal 2D echo.   Review of TEE. (ref.49A)

1989   Wollschlager et al.   Transesophageal dynamic three dimensional echo(ref.50)

1990   Seward JB et al.    Biplane transesophageal 2D echo. (ref.50A)

           Biplane transesophageal 2D echo was reported in 1982

1990   Bonsal RC et al.    Biplane transesophageal 2D echo. (ref.51)   Biplane echo was reported by

           Hanrath (ref.31) in 1982.

1990   Omoto R et al.    Biplane transesophageal 2D echo. (ref.52)    Biplane echo was reported by

          Hanrath (ref.31) in 1982.

1992   Roelandt J et al.    Multiplane transesophageal 2D echocardiography. (ref.53)

1993 Seward JB et al.    Multiplane transesophageal 2D echocardiography. (ref.54)

1993   Roelandt et al.    Transesophageal three dimensional echo (ref.55)

2002   Trambaiolo P et al.     Transesophageal tissue Doppler echo. (ref.56)

2003   Cheng MM et al.     Transesophageal tissue Doppler echo. (ref.57)

2003   Vitarelli A et al.     Transesophageal tissue Doppler echo. (ref.57A)

 

2007   Salgo IS et al.   Transesophageal real-time 3D echo.  Matrix array probe. (ref.58)

2008   Desmet M et al.    Transesophageal speckle tracking. (ref.58A) 

2008   Sugeng L et al.    Transesophageal real-time 3D echo.  Matrix array probe (ref.59)

2011   Marcucci CE et al.   Transesophageal speckle tracking. (ref.59A)

2013    J Am Soc of Cardiography     Guidelines for performming comprehensive transesophageal         

           echocardiography. (ref.60)

 

 

 

Anybody can reproduce photographies from this website without permission of Hisanaga. 

E-mail correspondence      busuchan1122@yahoo.co.jp

 

 

 

 

References

 

1.  Side CD, Gosling RG    Non surgical assessment of cardiac function.  Nature 232:335-336, 1971      Esophageal continuous wave Doppler echo

From ref.1   Intraesophageal method.  Continuous Doppler only.  Special analysis of Doppler shift signals from descending thoracic Aorta.

Comment : Subject of this investigation was not written in this paper.  We could not know whether this image was human's or animal's.

 

2.   Olson RM, Cooke JP.    A nondestructive ultrasonic technique to measure diameter and blood flow in arteries.   IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, March 21:168-171,1974    Transesophageal continuous wave Doppler echo

3.    Duck FA, Hodson CJ, Tomlin PJ.    An esophageal Doppler probe for aortic flow velocity monitoring.     Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology  1:233-241,1974     Transesophageal continuous wave Doppler echo

4.   Daigle RE, Miller CW, Histand MB, Macleod FD, Hokanson D.   Nontraumatic aortic blood flow sensing by use of an ultrasonic esophageal probe.   J Appl Physiol 38:1153-1160, 1975           Examination of dog.  Pulsed Doppler without M-mode.

5.  Frazin L, Talano JV, Stephanides L, Loeb HS, Kopel L, Gunnar RM     Esophageal echocardiography.  Circulation 54 :102-108,1976      Notes : M-mode

From ref.5 Photography of the esophageal transducer 

From ref.5    Panel A shows the external echo of a patient with documented mitral stenosis. Panel B shows the esophageal echo counterpart with reversed orientation.

Leon J. Frazin M.D.    From University of Illinois Hospital and Health Sciences System UI Health.

6.  Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A, Nagata K, Yoshida S      A new transesophageal real time two-dimensional echocardiographic system using a flexible tube and its clinical application.  Proceedings of the Japan Society of Ultraonics in Medicine 32:43-44, 1977            

Term "Transesophageal" was first used in this paper.  On the other hand Frazin used Term "esophageal". 

 From ref.6     Transesophageal horizontal scan in a 26 years old female. 

Kohzoh Hisanaga, MD.(Hisanaga K.)    From "People who developed medical ultrasound".  p35, Itoh K, Ed., Supplement of Proceedings of 60th Meeting of JSUM 1992.   Kohzoh Hisanaga is not only an electronic engineer but also medical doctor.   

Dr. Hisanaga received the Honor Award of the Japanese college of cardiology in 1991 because Dr. Hisanaga developed Transesophageal two dimensional echocardiography for the first time in history.     

                                   The Honor Award of the Japanese college of cardiology

 

7.  Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A.   A new real-time sector scanning system of ultra-wide angle and real-time recording of entire adult cardiac images -- Transesophagus and Trans-chest- wall methods --.   In:White DN, Lyons AE, eds.    Ultrasound in Medicine Vol.4, New York, Plenum Press, pp391-402, 1978 

From ref.7    Insertions of transducer to esophagus and transesophageal ultrasound examinations were performed with patients in left lateral position(left). Typical horizontal scan in a normal adult by using transesophageal method(right).     

 From ref.7    Trans-thoracic method.   A long axis scan in a 31-year-old normal man.   Entire heart image is seen.   The  endocardiogram of the left ventricle and the right ventricular anterior wall are seen. 

From ref.7   Transesophageal M-mode echograms.   These images were recorded in order to identify echo sources of transesophageal cross-sectional images shown in Fig.10.    Arrows A,B and C of Fig.10A and Fig.10D correspond to Fig.9A, 9B and 9C in each and show directions of M-mode echograms. 

8.  Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A, Nagata K, Ichie Y, Yoshida S.   A new auto-sweeping system for  transesophageal M-mode scan and its clinical application.     Proceedings of the Japan Society of Ultrasonics in Medicine  33:45-46, 1978 

From ref.8  Fig.6 Auto sweeping transesophageal M-mode scan.

9.   Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A.   A new transesophageal high speed sector scanner.    Abstracts of 3rd European Congress on Ultrasonics in Medicine (3rd Congress of EFSUMB) pp201-205, October 1-5, Bologna 1978 

From ref.9    Transesophageal horizontal scan at the level of aortic valve in a normal adult.

10.    Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A, Nagata K, Ichie Y, Yoshida S.     Transesophageal cross-sectional echocardiography  ---New method for cardiac diagnosis--- (abstr.)  Jp Circulation J (Circulation Journal) 42:773,1978

11.  Hisanaga K and Hisanaga A.     A transesophageal real-time sector scanner with an oil filled cell.    Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Meeting of American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, p47, San Diego, 1978

From ref.11    Diagramattic illustration of the scanner.

From ref.11    Horizontal scan in a normal adult subject.

12.  Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A, Nagata K, Ichie Y, Yoshida S.   A new transesophageal high speed linear scanner and its clinical application.     Proceedings of the Japan Society of Ultrasonics in Medicine  33:47-48. 1978 

From ref.12    Transesophageal vertical scan through mitral valve in a normal adult. 

13.  Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A.   A transesophageal pulsed Doppler echocardiographic system and initial clinical results.  Proceedings of the Japan Society of Ultrasonics in Medicine  34:9-10, 1978      Transesophageal pulsed Doppler with M-mode.  This is the first human transesophageal pulsed Doppler in history.  Improvement of A.T.L.system. 

 

From ref.13    Mirror and transducer.

From ref.13    Flow pattern in RVOT.  Normal adult.

 

13A.    Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A.    A new trans-digestive-tract scanner with a  gastrofiberscope.   Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Meeting of American Institute of  Ultrasound in Medicine. p.108, November, San Diego, 1978     Examination of human.

13B.    Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A, Nagata K, Ichie Y.      A trans-stomach wall sector scanner with a gastrofiberscope.  Abstract of 2nd WFUMB, p383, July 22-27, Miyazaki, 1979

13C.    Histand MB, Wells MK, Reeves JT, Sodal IE, Adamson HP, Willson JT.    Ultrasonic pulsed Doppler transesophageal measurement of aortic hemodynamics in humans.   Ultrasonics 17(5):215-218, Sep 1979

13D.    Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A, Nagata K, Ichie Y.    A trans- stomach wall high speed rotating scanner and initial clinical results.   Proceedings of the Japan Society of Ultrasoics in Medicine 35:115-116, 1979        A flexible tube was used.

13E.    Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A, Nagata K, Ichie Y.     High speed rotating scanner for

 

transgastric sonography.  Am J Roentgenol 135:627-629, 1980     Examination of human.

 

14. Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A, Nagata K, Ichie Y.   A transesophageal high speed rotating scanner for oblique scan and long axis cardiac images including apex.   Proceedings of the Japan Society of Ultrasonics in Medicine 36:395-396,1980        

Four chamber view including apex could be observed easily by this system.

From ref.14    Inferior oblique scan through the apex in a normal adult.   Cross-section is angled downward about 40 degrees from the horizontal plane.  The entire heart including the apex is seen.

15.  Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A, Ichie Y.   A transesophageal ultrasound sector scanner for oblique scan (abstr.).  Circulation 60(suppl. II) : II-245,1979

16.   Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A    High speed rotating and sector scanners for transesophageal echocardiography and transgastric sonography.    Eizou Jouhou Medical  11:1094-1099,1979 (in Japanese) 

From ref.16   Fig 7  Transesophageal horizontal scan in a patient with ASD before surgical repair by using transesophageal sector scanner.    

17.   Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A.   A new transesophageal radial scanner using a rotating flexible shaft and initial clinical results.    Proceedings of the 24th Annual Meeting of American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. p.122, August 27-31, Montreal, 1979 

 

From ref.17     Diagram of transesophageal radial scanner.

From ref.17.    A horizontal scan in a normal adult woman by using the transesophageal radial scanner. 

18.   Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A, Nagata K, Ichie Y.   Cardiac imaging using a transesophageal ultrasound high speed rotating scanner.     Proceedings of the Japan Society of Ultrasonics in Medicine  35:157-158. 1979 

From ref.18    Photography of the original paper.

From ref.18     Transesophageal high speed rotating scanner.

From ref.18     Transducer and commutator in oil bag.

From ref.18     Horizontal scan at the level of the mitral valve in a patient with severe mitral stenosis by using the transesophageal high speed rotating scanner.  Anterior and posterior mitral leaflets are thickened.                                                   

19.    Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A, Fukui K, Nagata K, Ichie Y     Atrial septal defect visualization by transesophageal cross-sectional echocardiography.    Proceedings of the Japan Society of Ultrasonics in Medicin  35:51-52, 1979 

Photography of the original paper

From ref.19  Fig.1    Preoperative horizontal scan at the level of the mitral valve in a patient with atirial septal defect by using

a transesophageal high speed sector scanner. (case 1)      D = defect 

From ref.19  Fig 3  Postoperative horizontal scan at the level of the mitral valve in the patient as shown in Fig.1 by using a transesophageal high sopeed rotating scanner. (case 1)  

20.  Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A, Ichie Y, Nishimura K, Hibi N, Fukui Y, Kambe T.   Transesophageal pulsed Doppler echocardiography.  Lancet 1:53-54, 1979         Transesophageal pulsed Doppler with M-mode.    Improvement of A.T.L. system.

21.  Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A, IchieY, Hibi N, Nishimura K, Kambe T.    High speed rotating scanner for transesophageal cross-sectional echocardiography.   Am J Cadiol. 46:837-842,1980

From ref.21     Diagrammatic illustration of the transesophageal high speed rotating scanner. A small transducer in the esophagus is rotated through a full 360° through a flexible shaft by a motor at 15 to 50 cycles /s.  Although the small transducer is rotated with great speed in the patient's esophagus, no damage results because the transducer is safely enveloped in an oil bag.    

 From ref.21    Transesophageal high speed rotating scanner.  

From ref.21    Transducer and commutator in oil bag.  Sound energy is coupled to and from the transducer through the slip-ring commutator because of the full 360° rotation of the transducer.    

From ref.21     Transesophageal cross-sectional echocardiograms in a patient with mitral stenosis.  The cross section is horizontal and shows the heart as viewed from the cardiac apex.     A : a frame during diastole and B : a frame during systole.   A stenotic mitral orifice(in A) is seen between the tips of the thickened mitral leaflets.   The interatrial septum (IAS) is seen without dropout.    AML= anterior mitral leaflet,  ESO = esophagus,  IVS = interventricular septum, LA = left atrium, LV = left ventricle,  PML = posterior mitral leaflet, RA = right atrium, RV = right ventricle, TV = tricuspid valve.

22.   Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A, Nagata K, IchieY.  Transesophageal cross-sectional echocardiography.    Am. Heart J. 100:605-609,1980  

From ref.22    Transesophageal horizontal scan at the level of the aortic valve in a patient with mitral stenosis  .  The aortic cusps are closed in diastole. Large left atrium is seen .   Right ventricular outflow tract is seen anterior to the aorta.             AV = aortic valve,  RVOT = right ventricular outflow tract.     

From ref.22    Transesophageal vertical linear scan through the pulmonary artery in a normal subject.  Bifurcation of pulmonary artery and part of ascending aorta are seen.       AO = aorta, PA = pulmonary artery , BI = bifurcation of pulmonary artery.          

23.   Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A, Kambe T.   Detection of atrial septal defect by transesophageal two-dimensional echocardiography(abst.).   Circulation 62(suppl ) -34, 1980

From ref.23 Original abstract, Circulation(Suppl Ⅲ)-34,1980

24.    Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A, Nagata K, Ichie Y, Isaji F.   Transesophageal cross-sectional echocardiographic diagnosis of Lutembacher's  syndrome.    Proceedings of the Japan Society of Ultrasonics in Medicine  37:179-180. 1980  

 

From ref.24     Fig. 4   Transesophageal cross-sectional echocardiogram before surgical repair in a patient with Lutembacher's syndrome..  Cross-section is horizontal.          ESO = esophagus,  D = defect, LA = left atrium, LV = left ventricle, RA = right atrium, RV = right ventricle.

From ref.24    Fig.5   Transesophageal cross-sectional echocardiogram after surgical repair in a patient with Lutembacher's syndrome.  Cross-section is horizontal.   Interatrial septum is seen continuously .       IAS = interatrial septum. 

25.   Matsumoto M, Oka Y, Strom J, Frishman W, Kadish A, Becker RM, Frater RW,          Sonnenblick EH.     Application of transesophageal echocardiography to continuous      

intraoperative monitoring of left ventricular performance. Am J Cardiol  46(1):95-105, 1980   Not transesophageal 2D echo but M-mode echo. 

26.    Schulter M, Langenstein BA, Hanrath P, Kremer P, Bleifeld W        Mitral regurgitation detected by transesophageal pulsed Doppler echocardiography.   (abstr.)  Eur Heart J, 2(suppl A) 114, 1981   Transesophageal pulsed Doppler by improvement of A.T.L.system. 

 

27.    Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A, Nagata K, Ichie Y      Measurement of defect size of atrial septal defect by transesophageal two-dimensional  echocardiography.     Proceedings of the Japan Society of Ultrasonics in Medicine  38:5-6, 1981

Photography of original paper

From ref.27  Table 1  Ten patients studied and results.

From ref.27   Fig.2  Transesophageal two-dimensional echocrdiogram in a patient with an ostium secundum atrial septal defecct.  Cross-section is horizontal.   D = defect.

From ref.27  Fig.3 Same patient.  Transesophageal two-dimensional echocardiogram after repair of the atrial septal defect.  The repaired interatrial septum (IAS) is imaged almost continuously.

28.    Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A, Isaji F.   Transesophageal two-dimensional echocardiographic diagnosis of left atrial myxoma.       Proceedings of the Japan Society of Ultrasonics in Medicine  39:457-458. 1981

From ref.29     Transesophageal two-dimensional echocardiogram in a patient with a left atrial myxoma.   Cross section is horizontal.  A stalk of the tumor is seen clearly.    K = stalk.  

From ref.29    Fig.5  Extracted tumor.  Weight of the tumor was 38.5g.

29.   Schiller NB.   Evaluation of cardiac function during surgery by transesophageal 2-dimensional echocardiography.  In : Hanrath P, Bleifeld W, Souquet J (eds.)  Cardiovascular Diagnosis by Ultrasound,  Martinus Nijhoff Publishers  pp289-293, 1982

30.   Seward JB, Tajik AJ, Dimagno EP.    Esophageal phased-array sector echocardiography.   In : Hanrath P, Bleifeld W, Souquet J (eds.)  Cardiovascular Diagnosis by Ultrasound,  Martinus Nijhoff Publishers  pp270-279, 1982          Not human but animal.

31.    Hanrath P, Schulter M, Langenstein BA, Polster J, Engel S    Transesophageal  horizontal and sagittal imaging of the heart with phased array system.  Initial clinical results.   In Hanrath P, Bleifeld W and Souquet J (eds.) Cardiovascular Diagnosis by ultrasound, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers 1982, pp280-288

32.   Schulter M, Langenstein BA, Hanrath P.   Transesophageal pulsed Doppler echocardiography in mitral and aortic regurgitation, In:Hanrath P, Bleifeld W and Souquet J eds.  Cardiovascular Diagnosis by ultrasound. pp132-140, 1982     Transesophageal Pulsed Doppler with M-mode by improvement of A.T.L.system.

33.   Souquet J, Hanrath P, Ziteli L, Kremer P, Langestein BA, Schulter M.     Transesophageal phased array for imaging the heart.   IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 29:707-712, 1982

Jacques Souquet, PhD.  From Eugene A Hessel et. al.  Evolution of Perioperative Echocardiography.  Anesthesia Key.

34.  Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A.   Transesophageal cross-sectional echocardiography with a mechanical scanning system.  In : Hanrath P, Bleifeld W, Souquet J (eds.)  Cardiovascular Diagnosis by Ultrasound,  Martinus Nijhoff Publishers  pp239-246, 1982

From ref.34   Horizontal scan in a normal adult.

35.    Schulter M, Langenstein BA, Polster J, Kremer P, Souquet J, Engel S, Hanrath P.    Transesophageal cross-sectional echocardiography with a phased array transducer system.  Technique and initial clinical results.   Br. Heart J.  48:67-72, 1982

36.    Souquet J    Phased array transducer technology for transesophageal imaging of the heart-- current status and future aspects--.   In Hanrath P, Bleifeld W and Souquet J (eds.)   Cardiovascular Diagnosis by Ultrasound,  Martinius Nijhoff Publishers, May 1982, PP251-259  

From ref.36    Mitral valve prolapse.

37.    Cahalan MK et al.    Intraoperative monitoring with two-dimensional echocardiography.  Anesthesiology 57: A153, 1982     Transesophageal phased array 2D echocardiography.     Intraoperative monitoring with transesophageal 2D echo.

38.    Kremaer P et al.     Intraoperative monitoring of left ventricular performance by transesophaeal M-mode and 2-D echocardiography. (abstr)   Am J Cardiol 49:956, 1982      Transesophageal phased array 2D echocardiography.  

39.     Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A.   Findings of coronary artery by transesophageal two-dimensional echocardiography.     Proceedings of the Japan Society of Ultrasonics in Medicine  40:171-172, 1982    

From ref.39    Transesophageal two-dimensional echocardiogram in a patient with both aortic regurgitation and mitral stenosis.  LCA = left coronary artery, RCA = right  coronary artery.      

40.  Hisanaga K, Hisanaga A     A visualization of coronary artery by transesophageal two-dimensional echocardiography (2nd report).   Proceedings of the Japan Society of Ultrasonics in Medicine  41:715-716, 1982 

From ref.40  Fig.3  Transesophageal two-dimensional echocardiogram.    B = left coronary artery

40A.   Furuya H, Suzuki T, Okumura F, Kishi Y, Uefuji T.     Detection of Air Embolism by Transesophageal Echocardiography.  Anesthesiology 58:124–129, February 1983 

 

40B.   Ezekowitz MD, Smith EO, Rankin R, Harrison LH Jr. Krous HF.     Left atrial mass: Diagnostic value of transesophageal 2-dimensional echocardiography and indium-lll platelet scintigraphy.  Am J Cardiol 51(9):1563-1564, 15 May 1983

Detection of left atrial myxoma by 2-D TEE.

40C.   Bertini A, Masotti L, Zuppiroli A et al.   Rotating probe for trans-oesophageal cross-sectional echocardiography.  J Nucl Med Allied Sci  28:115-121,1984 

41.    Smith JS, Cahalan MK et al.     Intraoperative detection of myocardial ischemia in high- risk patients: electrocardiography versus two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography.   Circulation  72:5, 1015-1021, 1985

41A.   Beaupre PN, Kremer PF et al.  Intraoperative detection of changes in left ventricular segmental wall motion by transesophageal two-dimensional echocardiography.   Am Heart J  107: 5, 1021-1023,1984 

42.   Curling PE, Newsome LR et al.     2D-transesophageal echocardiography: A bidirectional phased array probe with temperature monitoring.(abstr)  Anesthesiology  61(3A): 159, 1984    Transesophageal bidirectional echo was reported by Hanrath in 1982ref.31 

43.  Topol EJ, Weiss JL, Guzman PA, Dorsey-Lima S, Blanck TJ, Humphrey LS, Baumgartner WA, Flaherty JT, Reitz BA.     Immediate improvement of dysfunctional myocardial segments after coronary revascularization: Detection by intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography.  J Am Coll Cardiol  4(6): 1123-1134, 1984    

Intraoperative transesophageal echo was reported in 1982.(ref.29, ref.37, ref.38) 

44.   Goldman ME, Thys D, Ritter S, Hittel Z, Kaplan J.    Transesophageal real-time Doppler flow imaging: a new method for intraoperative cardiac evaluation (abstract) J Am Coll Cardiol 7:1, 1986       Intraoperative real-time Doppler flow mapping.

45.  Cucchiara RF, Nugent M et al.     Air embolism in upright neurosurgical patients: Detection and localization by two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography.  Anesthesiology 60: 353-355, 1984

46.   Topol EJ, Humphrey LS et al.   Value of intraoperative left ventricular microbubbles detected by transesophageal two-dimensional echocardiography in predicting neurologic outcome after cardiac operations.   Am J Cardiol 56(12): 773-775, 1985

47.   Achenberg W, Schluter M, Klemer P et al.    Transesophageal two-dimensional echocardiography for the detection of left atrial appendage thrombus.  J Am Coll Cardiol 7(1):163-166, 1986

48.   Takamoto S, Kyo S, Matsumura M, Hojo H, Yokote Y, Omoto R.    Total visualization of thoracic dissecting aortic aneurysm by transesophageal Doppler color flow mapping (abstract). Circulation 74(Suppl II):II–132, 1986

49.   de Bruijn NP, Clements FM, Kisslo JA.    Intraoperative transesophageal color flow mapping: initial experience.  Anesth Analg 66:386–390, 1987

49A.    Seward JB, Khandheria BK et al.     Transesophageal echocardiography: Technique, anatomic correlations, implementation and clinical applications.  Mayo Clinic Proceedings   63(7): 649-680, 1988    Review of TEE.

50.     Wollschlager H, Zeiher AM, Klein HP, Kasper W, Wollschlager S, Geibel A, Just H  

 "Transesophageal echo computer tomography(ECHO-CT) : a new method of dynamic

3-D reconstruction of the heart)" (in German)   Biomed. Tech. (Berl) 34 Suppl:10-1, 1989

50A.   Seward JB, Khandheria BK et al.     Biplane transesophageal echocardiography: Anatomic correlations, image orientation and clinical application.  Mayo clin Proc  65: 1193-1213, 1990

51.   Bansal RC, Shakudo M, Shah PM et al.   Biplane transesophageal echocardiography: Technique, image orientation, and preliminary experience in 131 patients.    Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography  3:5, 348-366, 1990  

Biplane echo was reported by Hanrath (ref.28B) in 1982

52.   Omoto R, Kyo S, Matsumura M, Adachi H, Masuyama M, Matsunaka T.    New direction of biplane transesophageal echocardiography with special emphasis on real-time biplane imaging and matrix phased-array biplane transducer.  Echocardiography 7:6, 691-698, 1990

Biplane echo was reported by Hanrath (ref.28B) in 1982 

53.  Roelandt J, Thomson IR, Vletter WB, Brommersma P, Bom N, Linker DT.    Multiplane transesophageal echocardiography: Latest evolution in an imaging revolution.   Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography 5(4):361-367, 1992 

Multiplane transesophageal 2D echo. 

54.  Seward JB, Khandheria BK, Freeman WK, Oh JK, Enriquez-Sarano M, Miller FA, Edwards WD, Tajik AJ.      Multiplane transesophageal echocardiography: image orientation, examination technique, anatomic correlations, and clinical applications.  Mayo clinic Proc. 68:523-551, 1993 

55.    Roelandt J, ten Cate FJ, Bruining N, Salustri A, Vietter WB, Mumm B, van der Putten N      Transesophageal rotoplane echo-CT. A novel approach to dynamic three-dimensional echocardiography.   Thoraxcentre J 6:4-8, 1993 

56.    Trambaiolo P, Salustri A et al.   Assessment of left atrial appendage wall velocities by transesophageal tissue Doppler echocardiography: a clinical study in patients with sinus rhythm.  J Am Soc Echocardiogr 15(5): 425-432, 2002

57.   Cheng MM, Li J, White PA et al.   Doppler tissue echocardiography: Can transesophageal echocardiography be used to acquire functional data.    J Am Soc Echocardiogr  16(7): 732-737, 2003 

 

57A.  Vitarelli A, Conde Y, Cimmino E, Colantonio R, D’Angeli I, Stellato S.     Transesophageal echocardiography with tissue Doppler imaging in the assessment of global and regional systolic and diastolic right ventricular function in atrial septal defects.   Journal of cardiac failure 9:5 Suppl 1, S23, October, 2003

58.   Salgo IS    3D echocardiographic visualization for intracardiac beating heart surgery and intervention.     Seminars in Thoracic Cardiovascular Surgery, 19:325-329, 

2007              Transesophageal real-time 3D echo.  Matrix array probe.

58A.   Desmet M, Bowry R, Tousignant C.   Use of transesophageal speckle tracking echocardiography to evaluate right ventriciular longitudinal strain during cardiac surgery.    Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 55(S1):4608071-4608072, 2008

59.    Sugeng L, Shernan SK, Salgo IS, Weinert L, Shook D, Ramen J, Jeevanandam V, Dupont F, Settlemier S, Savord B, Fox J, Mor-Avi V, Lang RM     Live 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography initial experience using fully-sampled matrix array probe.  Journal of the American College of Cardiology 52:446-449, 2008    Transesophageal real-time 3D echo.  Matrix array probe.

 

59A.   Marcucci CE, Samad Z, Rivera J, Adams DB, Philips-Bute BG, et al.   

A comparative evaluation of transesophageal and transthoracic echocardiography for measurement of left ventricular systolic strain using speckle tracking.  J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth  26(1):17–25, 2011

60.    Harn RT, Abraham T et al.    Guidelines for performing comprehensive transesophageal echocardiographic examination: Recommendations from the American Society of Echocardiography and the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists.   J Am Soc Echocardiogr 26; 921-64,2013

 

Apart from gagging, no serious complications were encountered in any of the

transesophageal and transgastric examinations by Hisanaga.  Medical Doctor Hisanaga himself developed all transesophageal and transgastric systems without help of any electric companies or organizations except that of Asako Hisanaga.